| ||1 PAPER MILL|
Extensive renovations began in the paper mill in 1947. Some of the old buildings were fixed or they were replaced with new concrete and brick buildings; space was made for a new machine room. The world’s widest (5.5 metres) pergamine machine, PM VII, was installed in 1952. In addition to pergamine, the Mänttä paper mill produced roofing felt, base paperboard, wrapping paper, silk paper, cellulose wadding, and various kinds of household papers (i.e. toilet paper, serviettes, and tissues). Renovations continued into the 1960s. At the beginning of the decade, a 180 metre long machine room, designed by Heimo Kautonen, was built. Mänttä’s first tissue paper machine PM 8, ordered from Beloit Iron Works, was installed in the factory hall. Paper refinement also developed quickly when a refinement department and storage space were situated near the paper hall. The expansion of the paper mill continued in 1965: Europe’s fastest paper machine at the time, PM 9, was situated in the factory hall designed by Heimo Kautonen. A new machine room was built in 1969 and a PM 10 made by Beloit Walmsley was situated there. The Mänttä paper factory was the largest tissue producer in Scandinavia in the mid-1970s. Production was geared toward special types of paper such as grease-proof paper, baking paper, and other types of paper used in the baking industry. The output of the tissue factory was about half of all tissue paper sold in Finland. A new refinement and product storage building was completed in 1984. The new refinement department raised the factory’s degree of refinement and made the diversification of the range of products possible. The paper factory is still in use.
| ||2 THE INK-REMOVING PLANT
Finland’s first ink-removing department was completed in Mänttä in 1976. The method for removing ink reduced the need for wood pulp in paper production. The first recycled pulp products were then named “Puunsäästäjät” (“wood savers”).
Ink is removed from waste paper to ensure that there are no impurities in the recycled paper. The actual ink-removal unit was supplied by German Edcher Wyss. By the time the department was finished, it was able to handle 30 tons of waste paper in 24 hours. Special attention was given to the conservation of water when designing the department.
In addition, two pulp towers were built for the buffer reserve. They enabled the use of two different types of fibre pulp with paper machines when necessary and, at the same time, guaranteed steady production with the paper machines.
The ink-removal department was expanded in 1986 after which production nearly doubled. The department is still in use.
| ||3 WAREHOUSE FOR THE RECLAIMED PAPER
The warehouse was built in 1976 at the same time as the adjacent ink-removing plant. The building is still in use today for storing and receiving incoming reclaimed paper.
| ||4 THE ENGINEERING WORKSHOP’S FOUNDRY
Completed in 1944, the building was designed by Heimo Kautonen.
After the war, the engineering workshop concentrated on producing pumps. Dry powder and foam fire extinguishers were introduced into production in 1951. They were sold through Sammutin Oy, a subsidiary of the G.A. Serlachius Oy.
Operations in the foundry were suspended in 1978 due to a lack in demand for its products. The pump factory was sold to A. Ahlström Oy in 1984.
The building is now used as storage space.
| ||5 THE ENGINEERING WORKSHOP’S ASSEMBLY HALL
Completed in 1963, this building was designed by Heimo Kautonen. Pumps were assembled and tested, and sheet metal and machinery work were carried out in the hall. Ample space to work in made possible many things: it allowed for a rise in production capacity, machines were replaced, and serial production was developed.
After operations in the engineering workshop came to an end, the building was, and still is, used as a warehouse.
| ||6 THE ENGINEERING WORKSHOP’S OFFICE AND MACHINERY BUILDING
A machinery hall and office space, designed by Heimo Kautonen, was built for the engineering workshop in 1970.
The prosperity at the turn of the 1960s and 1970s allowed for large investments in the metal industry. The workshop’s organisation of sales, which operated mainly on the domestic market, was reorganised completely. Production was divided into four separate lines: foundry products, pumps, packaging machines, and miscellaneous shipments to the company’s own factories.
Operations in the workshop have come to an end and nowadays the building houses a local radio station, a private medical clinic, a physical therapy clinic, and Softum Netcenter, a group of various companies.
| ||7 HYDROPOWER STATION
Completed in 1933, this hydropower station is still in use today, although it is no longer as significant to the Mänttä factories for their supply of energy. Few changes have been made to the building since it was built.
| ||8 THE KOSKITALO
Designed by Heimo Kautonen, this combined office and water purification building began operations in 1962.
A Helsinki-based company, G. W. Berg & Co., designed and mechanised the water purification plant and pump station. A sharpening of competition in the paper industry prompted the construction of the plant. As a result of chemical water purification, water used in the paper machines and bleaching plant was much more pure. This made possible the production of brighter qualities of paper.
An additional story was added to the building in 1965. It was used mainly for office space, which is nowadays the work place for the highest executives of Mänttä’s factories. The water purification plant is still in use today.
| ||9 BLEACHING PLANT
A decision was made in 1964 to expand the Mänttä bleaching plant because its capacity no longer answered to the demand. A new bleaching plant, designed by Heimo Kautonen, was constructed onto the old plant during the following year. As a result of the new order, the cellulose plant’s warehouse, sorting rooms, as well as the production of bleaching chemicals were situated in the old plant.
The cellulose plant is no longer in operation and nowadays the building is used for storage space. The bleaching plant’s pulp tanks are still used for storing pulp.
| ||10 STEAM POWER STATION
The steam power station was expanded in 1956 according to the blueprints presented by Heimo Kautonen. A new boiler room, silo, warehouse, machinery hall, and control room were built at this time. A fourth boiler was installed in 1974.
The power plant is still in use. Today, it is owned by Mäntän Energia Oy.
| ||11 SULPHITE CELLULOSE MILL
Renovations in the cellulose mill were conducted according to Valter Thomé’s original design up until the 1950s. Extensions added to the building after the 1950s, however, represented the typical style of Heimo Kautonen.
Kautonen designed the extension to the sulphite cellulose plant’s north end; its construction was completed in 1956. The pulp pits were replaced and the factory received three new digesters and a new lift. In 1961, two new digesters were installed in the building’s north side. Part of the old steam power plant was torn down during the renovations. The ninth digester was installed in the north end of the building in 1972.
At the end of 1980s the plant began to produce viscose pulp intended solely for export to the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union fell just a couple of years afterwards, though, and trouble at the Mänttä cellulose mill began. Operations ceased in 1991.
Dismantlement of the cellulose mill began in 1996. All buildings have not been torn down.
| ||12 ACID PLANT
The acid-producing plant, designed by Jarl Eklund in the 1930s, produced acid for the cellulose mill throughout its entire period of operations.
The pyrites furnaces were dismantled in 1960 after which acid was produced by burning melted sulphur.
One acid tower was added in 1952 and, at the same time, a lift was added to the building and the cabin joining the peaks of the towers was enlarged. The architect was Heimo Kautonen.
The actual acid plant was torn down in 1996 soon after the cellulose mill ceased operations. The acid towers are still standing in the factory area. They may have to be torn down because of their poor condition.
| ||13 EVAPORATION PLANT
The utilisation of waste liquor had to be planned again after the spirits factory ceased operations. An evaporation plant, designed by Heimo Kautonen, was built where waste liquor produced from boiling cellulose was dissipated into suitable fuel for the power plant. The evaporation plant was expanded in 1974.
The building was torn down in 1996 soon after the cellulose mill ceased operations.
| ||14 WARM WATER DEPARTMENT
This department processed different types of condensation water coming from the evaporation plant.
| ||15 THE NEW SPIRITS FACTORY
In 1978, after a 20-year break, sulphite spirits were once again being produced in Mänttä. The new building for distilling spirits was designed by the Kalle Vartola architect office.
When cellulose was produced using the sulphite method, part of the wood’s components turned into various sugars. It was possible to ferment these sugars into alcohol using yeast. The alcohol was separated from the waste in clearing tanks, concentrated and purified in a distilling tank. Alko Oy, Finland’s government-owned alcohol monopoly, purified and refined the alcohol further.
The spirits plant was torn down in 1996 because the chemical pulp plant was no longer in operations.
| ||16 CENTRAL REPAIR WORKSHOP
The cellulose plant’s central repair workshop, designed by Heimo Kautonen, was built in the beginning of the 1960s. The factory’s machines and other apparatuses were repaired in the building.
The building was torn down in 1996 after the cellulose plant ceased operations.
| ||17 THE OLD SPIRITS FACTORY
The old spirits factory produced sulphite spirits until 1955 after which the company’s laboratory operations were concentrated there. The spirits facktory’s office space was built into laboratories as soon as 1954. The factory’s machinery and tanks were dismantled in 1957. The boilery and laboratories were completed in 1964.
The company’s central warehouse moved into the building at the end of the 1960s. An additional wing was built for the warehouse on the east side of the spirits plant.
When the cellulose plant went out of business, operations in this building ceased also. Nowadays the building is protected, still standing although empty. Among other such events, the building has been used temporarily for the Mänttä Art Festival exhibitions.
| ||18 DEBARKING PLANT
Since the cellulose plant’s original debarking plant only had one debarking drum, the company was forced to renovate the entire department in the 1950s. The new debarking plant, designed by Heimo Kautonen, was completed in 1956.
The debarking plant was situated on the east end of the factory area and therefore it became the first building in the pulpwood process line. The three wet debarking drums removed the bark from the logs. The bark was then dried and used for fuel in the steam power station. The cleaned logs were then put into choppers. The wood chips were taken by conveyor to the wood chip silo and then to the cellulose mill’s digester house.
The debarking building was torn down in 1996 after the cellulose mill ceased operations.
| ||19 WOOD CHIP SILO
Designed by Heimo Kautonen, the wood chips silo was completed at the same time as the debarking building in 1955. The silo was used as storage for wood chips on their way to the cellulose plant. The chips were taken by conveyor to the boilery’s upper-most floor, the chip loft.
The wood chip silo was torn down in 1996 after the cellulose mill ceased operations.
| ||20 THE PEKILO PLANT
The Pekilo plant, designed by the Kalle Vartola architect office, was completed in 1982. The plant purified waste from the cellulose and spirits plants using a biological method, called the Pekilo process after the commercial name of the product.
The Pekilo mycelium, which uses the waste from the spirits factory and the evaporation plant for nutrients, contained large amounts of protein. It was used mainly for cattle feed.
The Pekilo plant went out of business when the cellulose mill ceased operations. Today, the building houses the Mänttä Art Festival.
| ||21 THE CARBON DIOXIDE RETAINING PLANT
Completed in 1982, the carbon dioxide retaining plant was designed by the Kalle Vartola architect office. The plant was built in connection with the spirits plant for taking in the carbon dioxide gases produced in the fermenting process. Being situated next to the fermenting tanks, its round shape was found to be more suitable for the landscape.
The retaining plant was automated and it produced approximately 5,000 tons of liquidised carbon dioxide a year. AGA marketed the product through a distribution network that encompassed the entire country. The liquidised carbon dioxide was transported from storage with tank lorries. The storage tanks were located on the premises of the debarking plant and silo.
The building was torn down in 1996 after the cellulose mill ceased operations.
| ||22 MONUMENT
Commercial counsellor G.A. Serlachius’ monument was moved closer to the rapids at the end of the 1950s.
Today the monument belongs to the collections of the Gösta Serlachius Fine Arts Foundation. It is the collection’s heaviest single piece of art.
| ||23 RANTALA
Rantala was the location of the company’s occupational health service until the 1980s. After this it was used to store the company’s working clothes, among other things. The building was torn down in 1990.
| ||24 STORAGE FOR THE PULP BALES
The building was used for storing bales of pulp until they were sold and transported.
| ||25 PAPER REEL STORAGE
The building was used for storing large roll goods intended mainly for export.
| ||26 HEAD OFFICE
Serlachius’ head office became the local office for Metsä-Serla, a new company which formed out of a merger between G.A. Serlachius Oy and the Metsäliiton teollisuus in 1986. After the merger, the building housed the company’s land use department Metsämannut Oy, among others.
Metsä-Serla sold the building in the year 2000 to the Gösta Serlachius Fine Arts Foundation which opened up a new G.A. Serlachius Museum in it in 2003.
| ||27 CHURCH
Designed by W.G. Palmqvist and built by G.A. Serlachius Oy in 1928, this church has remained quite unchanged. In 1974, the church was re-painted completely on the inside using the original colours. Once a parish hall, the west side was connected to the actual church hall during the renovations. Fixed benches were added there also.
A new church organ replaced the old one in 2003.
| ||28 PARISH HALL
G.A. Serlachius Oy donated a plot of land to the parish based on the condition that construction on the site should begin during the year 1958. The building was designed by the company’s architect Heimo Kautonen.
The building was completed in two parts. The first part was completed in 1958, just in time for the parish’s 30th anniversary, and the extension was completed in 1973.
| ||29 THE KIRKONPELTO BLOCK OF FLATS A
The company built six blocks of flats in the Kirkonpelto area for its employees between the years 1955-1964.
This block, designed by architect Heimo Kautonen, was the first to be completed in the area. The building houses 12 flats and it is still in use. Today it is owned by the city of Mänttä.
| ||30 THE POWER STATION’S SHIFTER HOUSE
The power station still gets its raw water through the building.
| ||31 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS TANKS
Liquefied petroleum gas is used to warm up the drying air in the paper machines.
| ||32 THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTATION
The transforming substation was used for both main distribution and receiving. It had connections to the paper mill’s transformers, its own power plant, the Imatran Voima power plant, the Kangas factories, Huutoniemi in Vilppula, and to the Syvinki and Loila substations. The substation distributed electricity to the city of Mänttä and also distributed electrical transmissions to the Kuoreveden Sähkö power station as well.
The substation is still in use. In addition to having connections to the factory’s substations, it also has connections to the Mäntän Energia Oy power station and the main electricity network.
| ||33 IRON WAREHOUSE
The warehouse for the factory’s iron goods was used earlier as a warehouse for the cellulose mill’s pyrite.
| ||34 UNLOADING WOODCHIPS
Woodchips coming from outside the plant on their way to the cellulose plant were unloaded at the unloading station.
| ||35 WOOD CUTTING STATION
The wood cutting station was built in connection with the new debarking plant in the 1960s. Here, wood on its way to the debarking plant was cut into pieces two metres long.
| ||36 THE GATE TO THE CELLULOSE MILL
A new gate for the cellulose mill was built in 1968 according to architect Heimo Kautonen’s design. The gate still exists today and is located in front of the steam power plant.
Nowadays it is referred to as the Voimaportti (power gate).
| ||37 VÄLILÄ
A two-family house for high-rank employees designed by architect W.G. Palmqvist in 1910. It was torn down in 1987.
Välilä has an outbuilding which was used as a garage in the 1960s.
| ||38 RIIHIKALLIO
Completed in 1916 and designed by architect Oiva Kallio, this building was used as living-quarters for employees. Today it houses offices for the Mänttä division of the Red Cross of Finland.
| ||39 PUNATULKKU
A two-family house for high-rank employees completed in 1917, and designed by architect W.G. Palmqvist. The building housed the Mänttä school for adult education for a long time.
| ||40 PELTOLA
A two-family house for high-rank employees completed in 1920, and designed by architect W.G. Palmqvist. It is now privately owned.
| ||41 KULMALA
Designed by Valter Thomé in 1904 for employees, the building has been used for a meeting place for various organisations since the 1960s.
An outbuilding is located on the west side of the house.
| ||42 PEURALA
A two-family house for employees completed in 1928, and designed by architect W.G. Palmqvist. It is now privately owned.
| ||43 HAAPALA
A two-family house for employees completed in 1928, and designed by architect W.G. Palmqvist. It is now privately owned.
| ||44 KUUSELA
A two-family house for high-rank employees completed in 1910 and designed by architect Valter Thomé. The building now houses living-quarters for the handicapped.
Kuusela’s outbuilding is now used as a garage and for storage.
| ||45 VARALA
Built in the beginning of the 1900s, Varala was bought by the city in 1988 and then became privately owned at the beginning of the 1990s. The building once again houses flats.
| ||46 TASALA
The building, designed by architect W.G. Palmqvist, was built for two clerical employee families. It was completed in 1917 and torn down in 1986.